Zenithal Gnomonic Polar Projection
 Lines of Latitude •Equator •Latitudes Lines of Longitude •Prime Meridian •Longitudes Relationships Facts on Earth Zenithal Projections •Gnomonic Polar •Gnomonic Equatorial •Stereographic Polar •Stereographic Equatorial •Orthographic Polar •Orthographic Equatorial Simple Conic Projection Cylindrical Equal-area Projection References Figure A Figure B Figure C Figure D Figure E In the polar case, a plane of projection touches the globe at one of the pole. In Figure A, a northern gnomonic polar projection is made. Thus, the map of the earth created by projecting points on the surface of the earth onto this plane from the centre of the globe. The globe can be represented by a circle of 1 unit is created by using a point (x, y) drawn a constant distance of 1 unit away from the point B, the light source as seen in Figure B. Focus on a quadrant of the circle bounded by a horizontal line segment BC and a vertical line segment AB such that both segments are 90° away from each other. As a representation of the earth, this would make segment BC the radius of the equator and segment AC the semi-axis of the polar axis touching the North Pole. The plane of projection is represented by a straight line drawn from point A to point G such that the segment AG is parallel to BC (or the equator). As a result, the plane of projection is tangential to the globe at the North Pole. Projections of latitudes are drawn by extending a straight line from the light source to the projection plane at the same angular distance from the equator possessed by the latitude. These points are called projection points. For example, point G, F, E, D, and A in Figure B are all projection points. The same procedure is done for the supplementary quadrant to produce the picture in Figure C. With the light source at the centre and rays perpendicular to the tangential point on the North Pole, that makes the projection of latitudes concentric circles with their centres at the North Pole. As a result, the radii of the circular latitudes are equivalent to the segment created from the tangential point to the corresponding projection points (refer to Figure D). The radii of such concentric circles used to draw the projected parallels is equivalent to the radius of the circle * tan (90° - angular distance of latitude). The proof is as follows: Refering to Figure C, for an arbitrary latitude MN, its projected radius is equal to FA because AB (which represents the polar axis) is tangential to the projection plane GL therefore, they intersect at 90°. Based on circle geometry, AB will bisect FK since it is perpendicular to GL and goes through the centre of the circle. If