A note on the forces that move particles in a second-order fluid
D. D. Joseph and J. Feng
J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 64, 299-302 (1996)
Abstract - In this note we show that the normal stresses on a solid body in plane flow of a second-order fluid are compressive and such as to turn long bodies into the stream and to cause circular particles to aggregate and chain.