Excel allows you to create spreadsheets much like paper ledgers that can perform automatic calculations. Each Excel file is a **workbook** that can hold many **worksheets**. The worksheet is a grid of **columns** (designated by letters) and **rows** (designated by numbers). The letters and numbers of the columns and rows (called **labels**) are displayed in gray buttons across the top and left side of the worksheet. The intersection of a column and a row is called a **cell**. Each cell on the spreadsheet has a **cell address** that is the column letter and the row number. For example, in the image below the cell address of the cell resulting from the intersection of column E and row 4 is "E4". Cells can contain either text, numbers, or mathematical formulas.

The worksheets in a workbook are accessible by clicking the worksheet tabs on the bottom of the screen. By default, three worksheets are included in each workbook. To add a sheet, select **Insert|Worksheet** from the menu bar. To rename the worksheet tab, right-click on the tab with the mouse and select **Rename** from the shortcut menu. Type the new name and press the **ENTER** key.

This toolbar is located just below the menu bar at the top of the screen and allows you to quickly access basic Excel commands.

### Moving Through Cells

Use the mouse to select a cell you want to begin adding data to and use
the arrow keys to move through the cells of a worksheet. Examples of
movements and corresponding key strokes:

One cell up: up arrow key

One cell down: down arrow key or ENTER

One cell left: left arrow key

One cell right: right arrow key or TAB

Top of the worksheet (cell A1): CTRL+HOME

End of the worksheet (last cell containing data): CTRL+END

End of the row: CTRL+right arrow key

End of the column: CTRL+down arrow key

Any cell: File|Go To menu bar command

### Adding Worksheets, Rows, and Columns

**Worksheets** - Add a worksheet to a workbook by selecting **Insert|Worksheet** from the menu bar.

**Row** - To add a row to a worksheet, select **Insert|Rows** from the menu bar, or highlight the row by clicking on the row label, right-click with the mouse, and choose **Insert**.

**Column** - Add a column by selecting **Insert|Columns** from the menu bar, or highlight the column by click on the column label, right-click with the mouse, and choose **Insert**.

### Resizing Rows and Columns

There are two ways to resize rows and columns.
- Resize a row by dragging the line below the label of the row you would like to resize. Resize a column in a similar manner by dragging the line to the right of the label corresponding to the column you want to resize.

- OR -
- Click the row or column label and select
**Format|Row|Height** or **Format|Column|Width** from the menu bar to enter a numerical value for the height of the row or width of the column.

### Selecting Cells

Before a cell can be modified or formatted, it must first be selected (highlighted). Examples for selecting groups of cells:

One cell: click once in the cell

Entire row: click the row label

Entire column: click the column label

Entire worksheet: click the whole sheet button

Cluster of cells: drag mouse over the cells or hold down the SHIFT key while using the arrow keys

To activate the contents of a cell, double-click on the cell or click once and press F2.

### Changing Format

To change the format of cell contents, highlight cells and select **Format|Cells** from the menu bar or right-click with mouse and choose **Format Cells**. The dialog box allows you to change:

- the display of numbers (e.g. number of decimal displayed, date format, etc.)
- the alignment of text in a cell, including text crontol options such as wrapped text and text spanning multiple columns
- the font of text in a cell, including font size and style
- the cell border style to manipulate cell borders for individual cells and for regions of cells
- the cell shading for changing colors of cells

### Moving and Copying Cells

**Moving Cells**

To cut cell contents that will be moved to another cell, highlight contents, select **Edit|Cut** from the menu bar or click the **Cut** button on the standard toolbar.

**Copying Cells**

To copy the cell contents, highlight contents, select **Edit|Copy** from the menu bar or click the **Copy** button on the standard toolbar.

**Pasting Cut and Copied Cells**

Highlight the cell you want to paste the cut or copied content into and select **Edit|Paste** from the menu bar or click the **Paste** button on the standard toolbar.

**Drag and Drop**

If you are moving the cell contents only a short distance, the drag-and-drop method may be easier. Simply drag the highlighted border of the selected cell to the destination cell with the mouse.

### Fill Down, Fill Right

To fill a set of adjacent cells in a column by copying the content of the cell at the top of the set, highlight the set of cells that need filling, then select **Edit|Fill|Fill Down** or press CTRL+D.

To fill a set of adjacent cells in a row by copying the content of the cell at the far left of the set, highlight the set of cells that need filling, then select **Edit|Fill|Fill Right** or press CTRL+R.

### Autofill

The Autofill feature allows you to quickly fill cells with repetitive or sequential data such as chronological dates or numbers, and repeated text.

- Type the beginning number or date of an incrementing series or the text that will be repeated into a cell.
- Select the handle at the bottom, right corner of the cell with the
*right* mouse button and drag it down as many cells as you want to fill.
- Release the mouse button.
- Select the action required (Copy Cells, Fill Series, Fill Formats, Fill Values)

Autofill can also be used to copy functions by selecting Fill Values in the sequence of steps described above.
### Paste Special

Instead of copying entire cells, you can copy specified contents from the cells. For example, you can copy the resulting value of a formula without copying the formula itself.

- Select the cells you want to copy
- Click
**Copy**
- Select the upper-left cell of the paste area.
- Right-click with the mouse and choose
**Paste Special**. The Paste Special Dialog box will open. Click the desired option. For example, to copy the resulting value of a formula without copying the formula itself, click **Values**.

The distinguishing feature of a spreadsheet program such as Excel is that it allows you to create mathematical formulas and execute functions.

### Formulas

Formulas are entered in the worksheet cell and must begin with an equal sign "=". The formula then includes the addresses of the cells whose values will be manipulated with appropriate operands placed in between. After the formula is typed into the cell, the calculation executes immediately and the formula itself is visible in the formula bar. An example is given below.

The following image shows a worksheet used to create an array of equally-spaced points within the interval [2,4] using a fixed increment of 0.5. Cell D1 (column D row 1) contains the value of the increment; the cells in column A show the point labels; Cell B2 contains the value of the start point of the interval; Cell B3 contains the value of the first point in the interval; and so forth.
To obtain the value in cell B3, the formula "=B2+D1" is used, as shown in the formula box. This means that the value "2.5" shown in cell B3 is calculated by adding the value stored in cell D1 (the increment) to the value in cell B2 (point x0).

### Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Referencing

Calling cells by just their column and row labels (such as "A1") is called **relative referencing**. When a formula contains relative referencing and it is copied from one cell to another, Excel does not create an exact copy of the formula. It will change cell addresses relative to the row and column they are moved to. For example, if the simple addition formula used in cell B3 "=B2+D1" in the image above is copied to cell B4, which is a cell in the same column but one row down, the formula would change to "=B3+D2" to reflect the new row.

To prevent this change, cells must be called by **absolute referencing** and this is accomplished by placing dollar signs "$" within the cell addresses in the formula. Continuing the previous example, if the formula in cell B3 read "=B2+$D$1", when copied to cell B4, the formula would change to "=B3+$D$1", allowing the value of cell B4 to be the sum of cells B3 and D1. Both the column and row of cell D1 are absolute and will not change when copied.

**Mixed referencing** can also be used where only the row OR column is fixed. For example, the formula in cell B3 could read "=B2+D$1", so that only the row of cell D1 is fixed. Then, when copied to cell B4, only the row in column B would change and the new formula in cell B4 would read "=B3+D$1". In this case, the calculated value in cell B4 would still be "3", as before, because the formula was copied in the same column. If, instead, for some reason the formula were copied to cell C3, one column to the right and one row down, the new formula in C3 would read "=C3+E$1" because only the row of the second term in the addition is absolute and would not change when copied.

### Basic Functions

Functions can be a more efficient way of performing mathematical operations than formulas. For example, if you wanted to add the values of cell B2 through B6 in theexample above, you would type the formula "=B2+B3+B4+B5+B6". A shorter way would be to use the SUM function and simply type "=SUM(B2:B6)". A few examples of functions are given in the list below: